• CG-13 Modeling Spray Condensers

    December 20, 2023
    This report reviews and evaluates literature methods for modeling spray condensers. It discusses droplet size, distribution, motion, and mass and heat transfer in a hot vapor stream. The methods in the literature are sufficient for modeling spray condensation of a single component without a noncondensable gas. Limited research on spray condensation of...
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  • BK1-18 A Parametric Study of Entrainment Using CFD Simulations

    November 10, 2022
    Accurate prediction of kettle entrainment is crucial for sizing kettles effectively, reducing equipment cost, and increasing column efficiency. Operating experience has informed the development of simple sizing rules. Two-phase CFD models can compute the amount of entrainment directly from the governing equations of motion. Two computational approaches are demonstrated: one uses...
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  • TechTip: Kettle Entrainment Prediction

    January 16, 2017
    After discussing an overview of kettle reboilers and the fundamentals of entrainment, this webinar reviews Xist® input and output as well as design considerations that affect kettle entrainment. By working through an example case, this webinar teaches that accurate prediction of liquid entrainment is crucial for some applications, that liquid carryover...
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