The benefits of our vapor infusion system have been proven in studies conducted at various universities, commercial applications, and with the United States Navy. Positive results include
- significant decrease in the need for heat exchanger cleanings
- increased time between cleanings
- dramatic reduction in fouling activity
- negligible levels of residual chemical in treated water
- low operation and maintenance costs
- minimal capital cost
Studies showing increase in heat transfer with use of bubbles
- Baris B. Bayazit, D. Keith Hollingsworth, and Larry C. Witte, Heat transfer enhancement caused by sliding bubbles, J. Heat Transfer 125(3), 503 – 509 (2003).
- Atsuhide Kitagawa, Kenji Uchida, and Yoshimichi Hagiwara, Effects of bubble size on heat transfer enhancement by sub-millimeter bubbles for laminar natural convection along a vertical plate, Intl. J. Heat Fluid Flow 30(4), 778 – 788 (2009).
- Hamed Sadighi Dizaji and Samad Jafarmadar, Heat transfer enhancement due to air bubble injection into a horizontal double pipe heat exchanger, Intl. J. Automotive Eng. 4(4), 902 – 910 (2014).
- Rudi O'Reilly Meehan, Brian Donnelly, Tim Persoons, and Darina B. Murray, Dynamic flow structures in the wakes of sliding bubbles for convective heat transfer enhancement, in Intl. Heat Transfer Conf. (2014).
- Samira Pourhedayat, Hamed Sadighi Dizaji, and Samad Jafarmadar, Thermal-exergetic behavior of a vertical double-tube heat exchanger with bubble injection, Exp. Heat Transfer 32(5), 455 – 468 (2019).
Studies on bubbles as medium to present chemical vapor through bubble surface
- Petronella R. Hove, Daniel Mobley, Forgivemore Magunda, and Douglas R. Call, Deploying elemental iodine in a vapor form to disinfect water and to clear biofilms, Intl. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 17(10), 3489 (2020).
Studies demonstrating effectiveness of bubbles for treating fouling
- Seun Moon Baek, Won Sil Seol, Ho Saeng Lee, and Jung In Yoon, Decreasing the fouling of heat exchanger plates using air bubbles, Defect Diffusion Forum 297 – 301, 1199 – 1204 (2010).
- B. Holden, G. Griffin, M. Seck, and M. Radicone, Final Report TR-NAVFAC-EXWC-EV-1404 In-Situ Shipboard Heat Exchanger Cleaning and Maintenance Using Innovative I2 Bubble Infusion Technology, ESTCP Project WP – 201219, Naval Facilities Engineering Command (2014).
- Mike Radicone, Control of bio-fouling in ground and salt water plate heat exchangers using iodinated bubble infusion. Two case studies, in Proc. Intl. Conf. Heat Exchanger Fouling Cleaning, 205 – 209 (2013).
- Mike Radicone, In-situ shipboard heat exchanger maintenance using innovative I2 bubble infusion technology, in Proc. Intl. Conf. Heat Exchanger Fouling Cleaning, 248 – 250 (2015).