F-EX-1-3 Fouling - The Major Unresolved Problem in Heat Transfer

J. Taborek, J. G. Knudsen, T. Aoki, R. B. Ritter, and J. W. Palen

Part 1. Fouling Mechanisms: Their Characteristics and Factors Influencing Them

An attempt is made to introduce a systematic treatment to the field of fouling. The various mechanisms of fouling and factors influencing them are analyzed and probable function relationships suggested. Speculations are offered for the effects of material, surface structure, equipment design geometry, and flow system. Presently available data sources and predictive methods are evaluated.

Part II. Generalized Predictive Methods

Generalized predictive method for determination of fouling as a function of time and respecting the effects of the operating parameters as well as the quality of the fouling stream is a necessary tool for rational design of process heat transfer equipment. Present efforts in this area are critically reviewed. A new semi-analytical approach, specifically applicable for cooling tower water, is presented and compared to data. Direction of future work is suggested.